I. The
following questions illustrate common health & pharmacognostical
problems that are often not handled ideally. Choose the correct answer.
More than one choice may be correct. (12M)





[1] Leaves usually occur in irregular matted fragments.
Slightly pubescent on the veins, the leaf is ovate in shape. The lamina
is simple, with an entire margin, an acuminate apex, and symmetric
base. These elements characterized:



A. Belladonna folium



B. Hyocyamus folium



C. Datura folium



D. Withania folium





[2] Related to point 1, which herb(s) could be used in mushroom poisoning. A





[3] Related to point 1, which herb(s) could be used as antihypertensive. D





[4] Related to point 1, which herb(s) have hallucinations effect. C





[5] 4 b (OH) withanolide E is



A. One of the chemotypes of Withania somnifera.



B. Sitoindoside type structure.



C. Psudoalkaloid.



D. Withanolide type structure.



[6] An elderly woman complains of poor
circulation with symptoms of very arthritic joint pains, which of the
following herb(s) would be good choice(s) for reducing her pain?



A. Lobelia inflate.



B. Catha edulis.



C. Capsicum annum.



D. Papaver immature fructus





[7] Related to point 6, which herb(s) would be contraindicated? B, D





[8] Related to point 6, which herb(s) would be antidote in case of intoxication with opium? A





[9] Related to point 6, which herb(s) would be a stronger effect on locomotors activity? B





[10] Contain over than 20 alkaloids with Aporphinic structure, with relaxant effect on smooth muscles. We are talking about:



A. Hydrastis rhizome.



B. Boldo folium



C. Ipeca radix



D. Kawa –Kawa





[11] Related to point 10, which herb(s) would be choloretic and stimulates the secretion of bile? A & B





[12] Related to point 10, which herb(s) would be with possible disruption of normal bowel flora if used long term. A







I. Draw the following structures: (12M)



[1] Psudoephedrine [2] Heroine [3] Digoxine [4] Boldine



[5] Withaferine A [6] Yohimbine [7] Gentiogenol [8] Tuiol



[9] Erytrocentaurine [10] Gipsogenol [11] Lanatoside C [12] Escine





II. Mention 5 characters of Digoxin & Digitoxin (10M)



[center]No.



Digoxin



No.



Digitoxin



1


1


2


2


3


3


4


4


5


5








III. Comment the following: (10M)






[1] Strophanthus kombe used in urgently cardiac insufficiently.





From Strophanthus have very reduced
toxicity per oral than injection. They contain in position C5 un OH,
which meaning more solubility and rapid action but having short
duration than digitalis, without accumulation in organism and no attain
the toxic doses. The best active compound is G - strophanthoside or
ouabaioside.










[2] Convallaria majalis used in rest of Digitalis



The principal glycosides is convallatoxine, which on hydrolysis gives strophanthidine and (-) rhamnose.





[3] Using of licorice in traditional medicine in cases of hemorrhoids.



Presence of numerous flavonoids and isoflavonoids.





[4] The better taste of Gentiana radix.


The root of Gentian contains two bitter colored substance which give the bitter taste, there are gentisine and isogentisine.









IV. Discuss Briefly about only 3 of the following Questions:


[1] Glycyrrhiza glabra (Phytochemicals & uses). (4M)


Constituents: Alongside 25-30% starch, 3-10% glucose and others:





Sucrose, coumarine, triterpenoid, sterols, flavonoids and saponine.



The saponine are chiefly represented
by glycyrrhizin (glycyrrhizic acid) 3-5% of the weight of the dried
product. Numerous flavonoids and isoflavonoids have been isolated:
flavanones (liquiritine), chalcones (isoliquiritine) which hydrolyzed
upon drying.



Uses: anti-inflammatory properties, duodenal ulcer, gastritis, food technology, epigastria bloating, impaired digestion, cough.




[2] Oleum sesame & Oleum jecoris (4M)


Oleum Sesami



زيت الـُسـمسـم



Sesanum indicum



[ Pedaliaceae ]



liquid, oily, pal yellow, sweetish, odourless, miscible with lypophyl solvents



oleic 50% linolic 37% palmitic 7%, vitamins B, D, E, F.



Preparation of injectabil solution.









[3]. Saponaria albae radix (Phytochemicals & uses) (4M)








Constituents: contain 15 - 20 % triterpenoid saponine. Principal compound is gipsofila-saponine or gipsoside and 13 - b - hydroxy dihydrogipsogenol. Other compounds: volatile oils 018 %, lipids 0.12 % and mineral substance 6-8%.



Uses expectorant, diuretic. Gipsoside prolongate the action of narcotics, convulsivant and analeptics.